Until fairly recently, selection of appropriate models and assigning values to characteristic parameters in physics-based soft tissue simulation was limited to educated guesswork. Prior experiments were performed mostly on animal and cadaver tissues, mostly in the “test tube”, and mostly for tissues of the musclo-skeletal system. Simulation for procedure rehearsal, surgical planning, instrument and procedure prototyping and non-surgical applications such as diagnosis and treatment are driving research into the quantitative study of many more tissue types.
This presentation will look into the state of the art in measuring the behavior of living tissues from organ systems including liver and abdominal organs, brain and vocal tissues, amongst others. Measurement of responses to blunt deformation, puncture and cutting will be reviewed, including mechanical deformation and imaging-based techniques. The capabilities and limitations of the various techniques will be pointed out in light of typical surgical manipulations. Methods for maintaining properties of freshly harvested tissue samples and a range of mathematical techniques for extracting material parameters from will also be discussed.