A Closed-Form Execution Strategy to Target VWAP

Alvaro Cartea
University College London

We provide two explicit closed-form optimal execution strategies to target VWAP. We do this under very general assumptions about the stochastic process followed by the volume traded in the market, and, unlike earlier studies, we account for permanent price impact stemming from order-flow of the agent and all other traders. One of the strategies consists of TWAP adjusted upward by a fraction of instantaneous order-flow and adjusted downward by the average order-flow that is expected over the remaining life of the strategy. The other strategy consists of the Almgren-Chriss execution strategy adjusted by the expected volume and net order-flow during the remaining life of the strategy. We calibrate model parameters to five stocks traded in Nasdaq (FARO, SMH, NTAP, ORCL, INTC) and use simulations to show that the strategies target VWAP very closely and on average outperform the target by between 0.10 and 8 basis points.

Presentation (PDF File)

Back to Workshop II: The Mathematics of High Frequency Financial Markets: Limit Order Books, Frictions, Optimal Execution and Program Trading